Steps Of The Production Turkish Ceramics & Tiles
Preparation For Throwing
The plastic body needs to seperated to different sizes according to the size of articles to be producet.
And it needs to be kneeded for better performance. This preparation is knows as "kündeleme"
In order to assure size consistancy of articles "kündeleme" plays an important role. And the person
which makes this operation should be very careful not to leave air bubbles inside the plastic body,
otherwise they cause breakage of the body in the kiln.
It is process used in the preparation of plates and bowls.The plastic bodies are preparet according to the
size.They are placed on plaster moulds. For every article (bowl or plates) there are different moulds. The
plates or bowl which is formed on the mould kept in a place where there is no air circulation. If there is
a circulation in the medium the article crack . Drying of the articles last 2 days.
This tecnigue is used to form articles like vases,jars,ewers,etc. This processis evenmore difficult than jiggering.
The plastic body is shaped by the skillful hands of the masters called " throwers". The matsership of the
throwers can be seen from the relative sizes of articles produced by them. The throwers may produce articles
ranging from 5 to 100 cm in size . The bigger articles are extremely difficult to produce to produce as they
need articles need longer time to dry.
The dried articles are engobed by a slip which has a white burning property. Engobing is perpormed by
brushes. It fills the porous pars on aticles and ensures a smooth surface.
After all these process the articles become ready for firing at 1000 °C .They are fired in electric or lpg
kilns and are called "biscuits" after firing last 24 hours. The firing lasts 10 hours to reach 1000 °C and 14 hours
to cool down. The problem faced during firing in breakage or cracking of articles. Therefore the articles are controlled
for " hidden" cracks. This is done by hitting the article with finger and listening its sound. If it is continious the
article is normal if not is it cracked. This sorting needs experience .
Decoration: (Outlining and Painting)
Decoration is usually performed by young women,because of their hand dexterity. Lots of women
in kütahya and iznik produce plates and contribute to their budget. Two steps of decoration; outlining
with synthetic sable fur brushes and painting donkey-hair brushes.
The first stage of decoration is contouring (outlining) . The desing is first prepared by skillful hands
on translucent papers. The desings are prepared by using ottoman motifs, they can either be classical
or modern. The beaty of desing is related to the ability of the artist and his/her feelings.
The desings which are drawn on translucent papers are perforated by needles. The paper is placed on
the article and the desing is transferred on the article by padding charcoal which is put in a piece
of bag made of clocth. And the outlines of desings are painted by ceramic stains on the article by
the ladiescalled Outlining(contourers) . In the process outliners use sable fur brushes and ceramic stains.
The contoured articles need to be filled with colours.The painting process is performed by brushes made
of donkey hair. Brush strokes are very important to get a homogenious colour.
Decorated articles are glazed by dipping in a slip which is prepared by a kind of crushed glass. Glaze
gives glossy and bright colour also protects the article and desing. Before it looks like milk; after baking
itbecomes glass . Glazing is a very important step in ceramic preparation: if it is too thin or too thich all
the labor is lost .Colour variations leaking of some colours and mattness are due to improper glazing.
The glazed aricles are baked for the second time at 900 °C . The articles placed in the kiln should not
touch each other ,because the glaze become fluid at 850 - 900 °C .And they stick each other. The baking
lasts 21 hours . 9 hours needed for reaching maximum temperature. The kiln cools down in 12 hours. The
cooling must be temperature distribution within the kiln must be even.
© This text is prepared by Salim Sabancilar it can not be used without his .prior consent.