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Steps  Of  The Production Turkish Ceramics & Tiles

Preparation For Throwing

The plastic body needs to seperated  to different  sizes according to the size of articles to be producet.

And it needs to be kneeded  for better performance. This preparation  is knows as "kündeleme"

In order to assure size consistancy of articles "kündeleme" plays an important role. And the person

which makes this operation  should  be very careful  not to leave air bubbles inside the plastic body,

otherwise  they cause breakage  of the body in the kiln.

Jiggering

It is process used in the preparation of plates and bowls.The plastic bodies are preparet according to the

size.They are placed on plaster moulds. For every article (bowl or plates) there are different moulds. The

plates or bowl which is formed on the mould kept in a place where there is no air circulation. If there is

a circulation in the medium the article crack . Drying  of the articles  last 2 days.

Throwing Depeartment

This tecnigue is used to form articles like vases,jars,ewers,etc. This processis evenmore difficult than jiggering.

The plastic body is shaped by the skillful hands  of the masters called " throwers". The matsership  of the

throwers can be seen from the relative sizes of  articles produced by them. The throwers may produce articles

ranging from 5 to 100 cm in size . The bigger articles are extremely difficult  to produce  to produce as they

need  articles need longer time to dry.

Engobing

The dried articles are engobed by a slip which has a white burning property. Engobing is perpormed by

brushes. It fills the porous pars on aticles and ensures a smooth surface.

Biscuit Firing

After  all these process  the articles become ready for firing  at 1000 °C .They are fired in electric  or lpg 

kilns and are called "biscuits" after firing last 24 hours. The firing lasts  10 hours to reach  1000 °C and 14 hours

to cool down. The problem faced during firing in breakage  or cracking  of articles. Therefore the articles are controlled

for " hidden" cracks. This is done by hitting the article with finger and listening its sound. If it is continious  the

article  is normal if  not is it cracked. This sorting needs experience .

Decoration: (Outlining  and  Painting)

Decoration is usually performed  by young women,because  of their hand  dexterity. Lots of women

in kütahya and iznik produce plates and contribute to their budget. Two steps of decoration; outlining

with synthetic sable fur brushes  and painting donkey-hair brushes.

Outlining

The first stage  of decoration is contouring (outlining) . The desing is first prepared  by skillful hands

on translucent papers. The desings are prepared by using ottoman motifs, they can either be classical

or modern. The beaty of desing is related  to the  ability of the artist and his/her feelings.

The desings which are drawn on translucent papers are perforated by needles. The paper is placed on

the article and the desing is transferred on the article by padding charcoal  which is put in a piece

of bag made of clocth. And the outlines of desings are painted by ceramic stains on the article by

the ladiescalled Outlining(contourers) . In the process outliners use sable fur brushes  and ceramic stains.

Painting (Filling)        

The contoured articles  need to be filled with colours.The painting process is performed  by brushes made

 of donkey  hair. Brush  strokes are very important to get a homogenious colour.

Glazing

Decorated articles are glazed by dipping in a slip which is prepared by a kind of crushed  glass. Glaze

gives  glossy and bright  colour also protects the article and desing. Before it looks like milk; after baking

itbecomes glass . Glazing is a very important step in ceramic preparation: if  it is too thin or too thich all

the  labor is lost .Colour variations  leaking of some colours and mattness are due to improper  glazing.

Glost Firing

The glazed aricles are baked for the second time at 900 °C . The articles placed  in the kiln  should  not

touch each other ,because  the glaze become  fluid  at 850 - 900 °C .And they stick each other. The baking

lasts 21 hours . 9 hours  needed  for reaching  maximum temperature. The kiln cools down in 12 hours. The

cooling must be temperature  distribution  within the kiln  must be even.

© This text is prepared by Salim Sabancilar it can not be used without his .prior consent.